Welcome to the Ophthalmology Journal News page! This page will showcase the latest news from the world of Ophthalmology, as published by The British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ).
For the British Ophthalmology Journal Archives, please visit http://bjo.bmj.com/ .
These news items are mainly specific study results that are relevant to the layman.
We have also added another news page with more ‘general’ Opthalmogy news here: Opthamologist News.
Furthermore, we have added a page with general news articles about Eye Health here: Eye Problems Articles , which is a good read for both patients and Ophthalmologists alike.
Ophthalmology Journal News:
To assess peripheral retinal lesions and the posterior pole in single widefield optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes.
A wide field of view (FOV) swept-source OCT (WFOV SSOCT) system was developed using a commercial swept-source laser and a custom sample arm consisting of two indirect ophthalmic lenses. Twenty-seven subjects with peripheral lesions (choroidal melanomas, choroidal naevi, sclerochoroidal calcification, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, retinoschisis and uveitis) were imaged with the WFOV SSOCT. Volumes were taken in primary gaze. Using the optic nerve to fovea distance as a reference measurement, comparisons were made between the lateral FOV of the WFOV SSOCT, current generation spectral-domain OCT (SDOCT) and widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) of the same eyes.
Peripheral pathologies were captured with WFOV SSOCT in 26 of the 27 subjects. The one not captured was in the far nasal periphery and was not seen in the primary gaze volume. Posterior pole associated pathologies were captured in all subjects. Current generation SDOCT had a mean lateral FOV of 2.08±0.21 optic nerve to fovea distance units, WFOV SSOCT had an FOV of 4.62±0.62 units and SLO had an FOV of 9.35±1.02 units.
WFOV OCT can be used to examine both peripheral retinal pathology and the posterior pole within a single volume acquisition. SLO had the greatest FOV, but does not provide depth information. Future studies using widefield OCT systems will help further delineate the role of WFOV OCT to quantitatively assess and monitor peripheral retinal disease in three dimensions.
The purpose of the study was to create a standardised protocol for choroidal thickness measurements and to determine whether choroidal thickness measurements made on images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and swept source (SS-) OCT from patients with healthy retina are interchangeable when performed manually or with an automatic algorithm.
36 grid cell measurements for choroidal thickness for each volumetric scan were obtained, which were measured for SD-OCT and SS-OCT with two methods on 18 eyes of healthy volunteers. Manual segmentation by experienced retinal graders from the Vienna Reading Center and automated segmentation on >6300 images of the choroid from both devices were statistically compared.
Model-based comparison between SD-OCT/SS-OCT showed a systematic difference in choroidal thickness of 16.26±0.725 μm (p<0.001) for manual segmentation and 21.55±0.725 μm (p<0.001) for automated segmentation. Comparison of automated with manual segmentations revealed small differences in thickness of –0.68±0.513 μm (p=0.1833). The correlation coefficients for SD-OCT and SS-OCT measures within eyes were 0.975 for manual segmentation and 0.955 for automatic segmentation.
Choroidal thickness measurements of SD-OCT and SS-OCT indicate that these two devices are interchangeable with a trend of choroidal thickness measurements being slightly thicker on SD-OCT with limited clinical relevance. Use of an automated algorithm to segment choroidal thickness was validated in healthy volunteers.
To investigate the progression of epiretinal membranes after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection therapy in patients with proliferative membranes and evaluate the changes in fibrosis-related cytokines in retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells after treatment with bevacizumab.
Retrospective study of the proliferative membranes in patients with and without IVB therapy. In vitro, the human adult retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells and BV2 microglial cell lines were incubated in different bevacizumab concentrations under hypoxic conditions. Cell culture supernatants and cell lysates were harvested after incubation for 24, 48 or 72 hours for ELISA and western blot.
Bevacizumab accelerated fibrosis in patients with proliferative membranes. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed more intense transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) staining in IVB-treated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) membranes compared with membranes of patients not receiving IVB therapy. This result was consistent with real-time PCR results. Bevacizumab incubation significantly upregulated TGFβ2 and CTGF in ARPE-19 cells and BV2 microglial cells, but ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression was upregulated only in BV2 microglial cells.
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment likely accelerates fibrosis in PDR patients via upregulation of TGFβ2, CTGF and CNTF, suggesting the importance of adjunctive therapy for retinal fibrosis.
To determine the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of repeat 360° selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in patients with open-angle glaucoma having undergone prior successful 360° SLT.
A retrospective chart review of 38 eyes of 38 patients with open-angle glaucoma (primary, pseudoexfoliation or pigmentary glaucoma) uncontrolled on medical therapy who had undergone two successive 360° SLT treatments, in whom first SLT was deemed clinically successful through a minimum of 6 months follow-up and who were followed for a minimum of 30 days after second SLT. Mean IOP at each postoperative time point (1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months) was compared with baseline using paired t tests. IOP changes after initial and repeat SLT were evaluated separately.
Mean (SD) baseline IOP before initial SLT was 21.6 (4.8) mm Hg. Mean IOP following initial SLT was significantly below baseline through 24 months of follow-up, with mean IOP at months 1–24 ranging from 15.9 to 18.6 mm Hg. Mean baseline IOP before repeat SLT was 19.1 (3.9) mm Hg, with a significant reduction in IOP from baseline through 24 months follow-up with mean IOP ranging from 14.7 to 17.0 mm Hg. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed longer median survival time for repeat SLT compared with initial SLT. No safety issues were observed with repeat SLT.
Repeat SLT can restore IOP control in eyes with open-angle glaucoma that have previously undergone successful initial SLT. Repeat SLT achieves comparable absolute level of IOP control achieved by initial SLT.
To evaluate long-term surgical outcomes and risk factors for recurrence after unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession (ULR) in children with small to moderate angle intermittent exotropia (IXT).
214 patients with basic type IXT of 15–24 prism dioptres (PD) who underwent ULR were included. The main outcome measure was success rate at 2 years after surgery and at final follow-up. The risk factors related to recurrence were evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses.
Success rate at postoperative 2 years was 92.5% and at final examination after a mean follow-up of 3.9 years was 83.2%. No overcorrection was observed. Preoperative exodeviation of 20–24 PD was the significant risk factor for recurrence according to both univariable (OR=3.577, p=0.022) and multivariable analysis (OR=3.265, p=0.034).
The overall long-term successful alignment rate of ULR for 15–24 PD of IXT was good. However, patients with 20–24 PD of IXT showed worse prognosis compared with 15–19 PD of IXT.
Children and adults with neurological impairments are often not able to access conventional perimetry; however, information about the visual field is valuable. A new technology, saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP), may have improved accessibility, but its accuracy has not been evaluated. We aimed to explore accessibility, testability and accuracy of SVOP in children with neurodisability or isolated visual pathway deficits.
Cohort study; recruitment October 2013–May 2014, at children's eye clinics at a tertiary referral centre and a regional Child Development Centre; full orthoptic assessment, SVOP (central 30° of the visual field) and confrontation visual fields (CVF). Group 1: age 1–16 years, neurodisability (n=16), group 2: age 10–16 years, confirmed or suspected visual field defect (n=21); group 2 also completed Goldmann visual field testing (GVFT).
Group 1: testability with a full 40-point test protocol is 12.5%; with reduced test protocols, testability is 100%, but plots may be clinically meaningless. Children (44%) and parents/carers (62.5%) find the test easy. SVOP and CVF agree in 50%. Group 2: testability is 62% for the 40-point protocol, and 90.5% for reduced protocols. Corneal changes in childhood glaucoma interfere with SVOP testing. All children and parents/carers find SVOP easy. Overall agreement with GVFT is 64.7%.
While SVOP is highly accessible to children, many cannot complete a full 40-point test. Agreement with current standard tests is moderate to poor. Abnormal saccades cause an apparent non-specific visual field defect. In children with glaucoma or nystagmus SVOP calibration often fails.
To report outcomes of autologous simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) performed for unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) at multiple centres worldwide.
In this retrospective, multicentre, interventional case series, records of patients who had undergone autologous SLET for unilateral LSCD, with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up, were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was clinical success, defined as a completely epithelised, avascular corneal surface. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were constructed and survival probability was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards analysis was done to assess association of preoperative characteristics with risk of failure. Secondary outcome measures included the percentage of eyes achieving visual acuity of 20/200 or better, percentage of eyes gaining two or more Snellen lines and complications encountered.
68 eyes of 68 patients underwent autologous SLET, performed across eight centres in three countries. Clinical success was achieved in 57 cases (83.8%). With a median follow-up of 12 months, survival probability exceeded 80%. Presence of symblepharon (HR 5.8) and simultaneous keratoplasty (HR 10.8) were found to be significantly associated with a risk of failure. 44 eyes (64.7%) achieved a visual acuity of 20/200 or better, and 44 eyes (64.7%) gained two or more Snellen lines. Focal recurrences of pannus were noted in 21 eyes (36.8%) with clinical success.
Autologous SLET is an effective and safe modality for treatment of unilateral LSCD. Clinical success rates and visual acuity improvement are equal to or better than those reported with earlier techniques.
To describe the relationship of retinal arteriolar and venular calibre with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and related risk factors, including glucose levels and other biomarkers in a Chinese population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
A cross-sectional study. Patients with T2DM were recruited from a local community in urban Beijing. Seven fields 30° colour fundus photographs were taken and examined for the presence and severity of DR using a standardised grading system. Retinal vascular calibres were measured and expressed as average central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalent using a computer-based program.
A total of 1340 patients with T2DM were included for analysis. Of these, 472 (35.22%) had DR. Wider retinal venular calibre, but not arteriolar calibre, was associated with increasing glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c levels (p<0.006) and dyslipidaemia (p for trend <0.05). After adjusting for possible covariates, the higher quartile of retinal venular calibre was associated with higher prevalence of any DR (OR 2, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.95). Venular calibre increased from 224.33 μm in those without retinopathy to 231.21 μm in those with mild, 241.01 μm in those with moderate and 235.65 μm in those with severe retinopathy (p for trend <0.001). Arteriolar calibre was not associated with DR.
In the current study, wider venular calibre, but not arteriolar calibre, was shown to be associated with development and increased severity of DR independently from other risk factors in a Chinese diabetic population.
Treat and extend (TE) treatment regimens have the potential to reduce the treatment burden placed upon patients receiving ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). This study aimed to analyse changes in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and anatomical parameters in patients switching from a pro re nata (PRN) to a TE regimen during routine clinical practice.
Retrospective, consecutive, comparative case series of treatment-naïve patients who were initially treated with 0.5 mg ranibizumab according to a PRN schedule, and subsequently switched to a TE schedule (12-month follow-up).
146 eyes from 134 consecutive treatment-naïve patients were included. Mean BCVA (decimal±SD) increased from 0.39±0.23 to 0.55±0.22 (p<0.001) during the PRN loading regimen, declining to 0.49±0.22 (p<0.001) during the PRN maintenance phase (mean duration 17 months; range 3–55). Following the switch to TE, BCVA improved to 0.55±0.23 and 0.56±0.24 by 6 and 12 months, respectively (p<0.001). Mean intraindividual variance in BCVA was higher during the PRN phase than at 12 months for TE (0.30±0.18 vs 0.09±0.08, respectively; p<0.001). After switching to TE, mean central retinal thickness decreased from 355±112 µm to 330±105 and 320±103 µm at 6 and 12 months, respectively (p<0.001). Mean number of visits per month was higher during PRN than TE periods (1.05±0.13 vs 0.73±0.18; respectively; p<0.001).
A TE regimen can improve and stabilise patient outcomes in nAMD compared with PRN, with the potential to reduce the healthcare resource burden incurred from fixed monitoring requirements.
To assess the association between past physical activity and early, intermediate and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a community-based cohort study in Melbourne, Australia.
Diet and lifestyle information was recorded at baseline (1990–1994) and total recreational activity was derived from walking, vigorous and non-vigorous exercise. At follow-up (2003–2007), digital macular photographs were graded for early, intermediate and late AMD. Data were analysed using multinomial logistic regression controlling for age, sex, smoking, region of descent, diet and alcohol. Effect modification by sex was investigated.
Out of 20 816 participants, early, intermediate and late AMD were detected at follow-up in 4244 (21%), 2661 (13%) and 122 (0.6%) participants, respectively. No association was detected between past total recreational physical activity and early, intermediate or late AMD. Frequent (≥3 times/week) and less frequent (1–2 times/week) vigorous exercise were associated with lower odds of intermediate and late AMD in univariable models. After controlling for confounders, there was evidence of effect modification by sex and frequent vigorous exercise was associated with a 22% decrease in the odds of intermediate AMD (95% CI 4% to 36%) in women, but no association was found for men.
Past frequent vigorous exercise may be inversely related to the presence of intermediate AMD in women. Further studies are needed to confirm whether physical activity and exercise have a protective effect for AMD.
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