Welcome to the Ophthalmology Journal News page! This page will showcase the latest news from the world of Ophthalmology, as published by The British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ).
For the British Ophthalmology Journal Archives, please visit http://bjo.bmj.com/ .
These news items are mainly specific study results that are relevant to the layman.
We have also added another news page with more ‘general’ Opthalmogy news here: Opthamologist News.
Furthermore, we have added a page with general news articles about Eye Health here: Eye Problems Articles , which is a good read for both patients and Ophthalmologists alike.
Ophthalmology Journal News:
Graded vertical rectus tenotomy (GVRT) is postulated as effective for small-angle vertical heterotropia. We aimed to determine the dosing recommendations for GVRT in sagging eye syndrome (SES).
This was a retrospective, observational study of surgical outcomes for GVRT from 2009 to 2014 in a single surgeon’s academic practice. There were 37 (20 women) patients of average age 68±10 (SD) years with comitant or incomitant hypertropia ≤10 caused by SES. The main outcome measure was the dose–effect of GVRT required to correct intraoperative hypertropia.
Preoperative average central gaze hypertropia measured 4.7±2.2. Three patients underwent repeat GVRT for residual or consecutive hypertropia, one undergoing it twice. All surgeries were analysed, increasing the total operations to 41. The inferior rectus tendon in the hypotropic eye was operated in 32 eyes, and the superior rectus tendon in the hypertropic eye in 9 eyes. Mean tenotomy was 68±19% of tendon width. Hypertropia was always eliminated intraoperatively by progressive GVRT. Mean hypertropia was 1.1±1.6 at average 93 days postoperatively. Linear regression demonstrated that 3–6 hypertropia correction requires 30%–90% graded tenotomy (R2=0.32, p<0.0001), but with substantial individual variability. Undercorrection necessitated reoperation in 10% of cases.
GVRT precisely corrects hypertropia of up to 10, but because of variable effect, it should be performed with intraoperative monitoring under topical anaesthesia.
To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) during follow-up of sealed macular holes and to study correlations of MPOD with progressive changes in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and functional results.
Consecutive patients (n=18) who had undergone successful vitrectomies for idiopathic macular holes were evaluated postoperatively at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. At each follow-up visit, MPOD was measured with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope and the outer retina evaluated by SD-OCT. The changes of MPOD postoperatively and the relationship of MPOD and SD-OCT findings to best corrected visual acuity were examined.
MPOD did not change significantly throughout follow-up, from 0.49±0.22 (mean±SD) at month 1 to 0.42±0.18 at month 9. There was a tendency towards a significant association between amount of MPOD and recovery of external limiting membrane during follow-up (p=0.068). Best corrected visual acuity increased significantly from 0.24±0.12 before surgery to 0.65±0.25 at month 9. Recovery of the ellipsoid zone determined most of visual acuity improvement (p=0.024). MPOD was not associated with visual acuity changes (p=0.394).
Revisualisation of macular pigment after successful macular hole surgery is not associated with improved visual acuity and may merely be an accompanying sign of the reapposition of the edges of the hole.
Eight years ago media coverage of incidents involving laser pointers in which individuals claimed to have suffered eye damage resulted in a perspective being published in this journal.
Unfortunately this is now not the case. While the biophysics relating to eye injuries remains constant the nature and supply of current handheld devices have changed dramatically in the past 8 years. In...
To assess the reproducibility and repeatability of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in healthy subjects.
Sixty healthy volunteers (60 eyes) were subjected to FAZ area measurements by means of high speed and high resolution spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) XR Avanti with the split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm by two experienced examiners in two different sessions.
The mean±SD age of the subjects was 28.9±7.6 years. Overall FAZ areas measured by the first and second observer were 0.251±0.096 mm2 and 0.252±0.096 mm2, respectively. Within subjects, the coefficients of variations were 1.83% (95% CI 1.51% to 2.20%) and 1.86% (95% CI 1.33% to 2.43%) for the first and second observers, respectively. The coefficient of repeatability average measurements of FAZ area were 0.015 mm2 and 0.013 mm2 for the first and second observers, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.997 (95% CI 0.995 to 0.998) and 0.998 (95% CI 0.996 to 0.999) for the first and second observers, respectively. Inter- and intraobserver concordance correlation coefficients ranged from 0.994 (95% CI 0.990 to 0.977) to 0.999 (95% CI 0.997 to 0.999) and from 0.997 (95% CI 0.995 to 0.998) to 0.996 (95% CI 0.994 to 0.998), respectively.
FAZ area measurements by means of OCT-A showed excellent reproducibility and repeatability in healthy eyes. OCT-A is a non-invasive diagnostic method, and its reliability makes it an interesting potential diagnostic tool for disease detection and follow-up in retinal pathologies involving foveal microcirculation.
Surgical management of complete third nerve paralysis is a challenge. While several techniques have been described over the years, they result in less than satisfactory outcomes with residual deviations in primary gaze or postoperative drifts. One of the described techniques for management of oculomotor palsy has been medial transposition of the lateral rectus muscle which provides a good surgical alternative but often can result in undercorrection. We describe a modification of the existing technique of medial transposition of the split lateral rectus by force augmentation through the use of equatorial fixation sutures resulting in an improved outcome in primary gaze alignment. The modified technique involves splitting of the lateral rectus into two halves followed by transposing the superior half from below the superior oblique and superior rectus and inferior half from below the inferior oblique and inferior rectus to attach them at the superior and inferior edge of the medial rectus insertion, respectively. This is followed by placing non-absorbable sutures to fix each split belly of the transposed muscles to the sclera at the equator adjacent to the medial rectus such that the split muscles lie nearly parallel to the medial rectus till the equator before reflecting away. These sutures augment the force of the transposed muscles by redirecting the force vectors in the direction of action of the medial rectus. Satisfactory postoperative primary gaze alignment was achieved in three cases of complete third nerve paralysis.
The Y402H polymorphism in the complement factor H (CFH) gene is an important risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Complement activation products and proinflammatory cytokines are associated with this polymorphism at the systemic level, but less is known of the associations in the outer retina of the genotyped eye. Here we investigate complement activation products and their role in nuclear factor (NF)-B activation and gene expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.
Postmortem donor eyes were genotyped for the CFH Y402H polymorphism and assessed for complement C3a, C5a, interleukin (IL)-18 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. ARPE19 cells were stimulated basolaterally with C5a or TNF-α in polarised cultures. NF-B activation was assessed with a reporter cell line. Gene expression of inflammasome-related (NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18) and classic inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8) genes was studied. The distribution of inflammasome products, IL-1β and IL-18, was studied in postmortem donor eyes with AMD pathologies.
Eyes with the homozygous at-risk variant demonstrated higher levels of C5a, IL-18 and TNF-α in Bruch's membrane and choroid. C5a promoted NF-B activation and upregulation of IL-18 in polarised ARPE19. TNF-α promoted NF-B activation and gene expression of caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6 and IL-8, but downregulated NLRP3. In eyes with geographic atrophy, strong immunoreactivity was observed for inflammasome products IL-1β and IL-18 compared with age-matched controls.
The at-risk polymorphism of the CFH Y402H may contribute to AMD disease process through increased complement and NF-B activation, and the upregulation of IL-18, a product of inflammasome activation.
To assess the impact of corneal disease on vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) in a rural North Indian population.
Cross-sectional, population-based study.
The Corneal Opacity Rural Epidemiological (CORE) study included 12 899 participants from 25 randomly selected clusters of rural Gurgaon, Haryana, India, with the primary objective of determining the prevalence of corneal disease in the general population during July 2011 to January 2013. VR-QoL was assessed through Indian Vision Function questionnaire (IND-VFQ-33) in adult participants (aged ≥18 years) detected with corneal opacity and equal number of healthy controls (no ocular pathology with visual acuity of 6/6 binocularly) selected from the same clusters. Scores of the three subscales of IND-VFQ-33 (vision-specific mobility, psychosocial impact and visual symptoms) were computed, analysed and compared separately across various groups.
Overall, 12 113 participants of all ages underwent detailed ophthalmic examination and VR-QoL was assessed in 435 cases with corneal disease and 435 controls without any ophthalmic disease. The diseased population had significantly higher scores and hence poorer VR-QoL across all three domains of vision function (scores of 28 vs 22; 6 vs 5 and 14 vs 9, respectively; p<0.0001) and the scores were inversely related with the level of visual impairment in patients with corneal disease. Patients with unilateral corneal disease also had poorer VR-QoL scores as compared with healthy controls (p<0.0001).
VR-QoL is impaired in patients with corneal disease, more so in patients with corneal blindness. This is the first population-based study to document VR-QoL through IND-VFQ-33 in the Indian population with corneal disease.
To review all cases of suspected vitreous seeding of treated or untreated uveal melanoma at our clinic and to compare clinical, cytological and histological findings with patients’ survival.
Retrospective non-randomised study of 23 patients with consecutive uveal melanoma who underwent diagnostic vitrectomy in our clinic between January 2000 and November 2013. Reason for vitrectomy was suspected dissemination of tumour cells inside the eye. Treated as well as treatment-naïve primary uveal melanomas were included in this study. Follow-up data of all patients were collected.
The study included 23 patients with a mean age of 66 years. Four patients presented pigmented vitreous debris at initial presentation prior to treatment of the uveal melanoma. All but one of these four patients has been enucleated as a consequence of cytology-proven vitreous spreading of vital melanoma cells. The remaining 19 patients presented pigmented vitreous debris at a mean of 60 months following local tumour treatment. Thirteen of these patients had been treated with a ruthenium plaque (mean scleral dose 1295 Gy, mean apex dose 152 Gy), three with binuclid plaque (mean scleral dose 1005 Gy, mean apex dose 70 Gy) and three with proton beam radiation. Of the 19 patients, 10 showed only melanophages in the vitreous specimen, while the remaining 9 patients had vital tumour cells in vitreous cytology. Four out of these nine patients have been enucleated in the course of follow-up. During follow-up of our cohort of 23 patients, 4 patients died, but only 1 of them due to metastatic disease.
The outcome of this small cohort study shows that obtaining a vitreous specimen helps to distinguish melanophages from vital tumour cells. We could not observe an increased risk of metastasis in patients who showed melanoma cell dissemination inside the eye, compared with those patients only showing melanophages. We therefore suggest to carefully re-evaluate the necessity of enucleation in every patient.
We analysed all of the PubMed publications on ab-interno trabeculectomy (AIT) with the Trabectome (Neomedix, Irvine, California, USA) to determine the reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications following the procedure. For IOP outcomes, PubMed was searched for ‘trabectome’, ‘ab interno trabeculotomy’ and ‘ab interno trabeculectomy’ and all available papers retrieved. The meta-analysis used a random-effects model to achieve conservative estimates and assess statistical heterogeneity. To investigate complications, we included all abstracts from the American Glaucoma Society, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology. The overall arithmetic mean baseline IOP for standalone Trabectome was 26.71±1.34 mm Hg and decreased by 10.5±1.9 mm Hg (39% decrease) on 0.99±0.54 fewer medications. Defining success as IOP ≤21 with a 20% decrease while avoiding reoperation, the overall average success rate after 2 years was 46±34%. For combined phacoemulsification-Trabectome, the baseline IOP of 21±1.31 mm Hg decreased by 6.24±1.98 mm Hg (27% decrease) on 0.76±0.35 fewer medications. The success rate using the same definition at 2 years was 85±7%. The weighted mean IOP difference from baseline to study endpoint was 9.77 mm Hg (95% CI 8.90 to 10.64) standalone and 6.04 mm Hg (95% CI 4.95 to 7.13) for combined cases. Despite heterogeneity, meta-analysis showed significant and consistent decrease in IOP and medications from baseline to end point in AIT and phaco-AIT. The rate of visually threatening complications was <1%. On average, trabectome lowers the IOP by approximately 31% to a final IOP near 15 mm Hg while decreasing the number of medications by less than one, with a low rate of serious complications. After 2 years, the overall average success rate is 66%.
To validate a mathematical algorithm that calculates risk of diabetic retinopathy progression in a diabetic population with UK staging (R0–3; M1) of diabetic retinopathy. To establish the utility of the algorithm to reduce screening frequency in this cohort, while maintaining safety standards.
The cohort of 9690 diabetic individuals in England, followed for 2 years. The algorithms calculated individual risk for development of preproliferative retinopathy (R2), active proliferative retinopathy (R3A) and diabetic maculopathy (M1) based on clinical data. Screening intervals were determined such that the increase in risk of developing certain stages of retinopathy between screenings was the same for all patients and identical to mean risk in fixed annual screening. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn and area under the curve calculated to estimate the prediction capability.
The algorithm predicts the occurrence of the given diabetic retinopathy stages with area under the curve =80% for patients with type II diabetes (CI 0.78 to 0.81). Of the cohort 64% is at less than 5% risk of progression to R2, R3A or M1 within 2 years. By applying a 2 year ceiling to the screening interval, patients with type II diabetes are screened on average every 20 months, which is a 40% reduction in frequency compared with annual screening.
The algorithm reliably identifies patients at high risk of developing advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, including preproliferative R2, active proliferative R3A and maculopathy M1. Majority of patients have less than 5% risk of progression between stages within a year and a small high-risk group is identified. Screening visit frequency and presumably costs in a diabetic retinopathy screening system can be reduced by 40% by using a 2 year ceiling. Individualised risk assessment with 2 year ceiling on screening intervals may be a pragmatic next step in diabetic retinopathy screening in UK, in that safety is maximised and cost reduced by about 40%.
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- clinical grading of CVas