Welcome to the Ophthalmology Journal News page! This page will showcase the latest news from the world of Ophthalmology, as published by The British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ).
For the British Ophthalmology Journal Archives, please visit http://bjo.bmj.com/ .
These news items are mainly specific study results that are relevant to the layman.
We have also added another news page with more ‘general’ Opthalmogy news here: Opthamologist News.
Furthermore, we have added a page with general news articles about Eye Health here: Eye Problems Articles , which is a good read for both patients and Ophthalmologists alike.
Ophthalmology Journal News:
The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).
A prospective study consisting of patients with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Patients underwent three 12x9 mm macular raster scans using the deep range imaging (DRI) OCT-1 SS-OCT (Topcon) device in a single imaging session. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were calculated for the ETDRS macular subfields. Repeatability was calculated according to methods described by Bland and Altman.
39 eyes of 39 patients with nAMD were included with a mean (±SD) age of 73.9 (±7.2) years. The mean (±SD) retinal thickness of the central macular subfield was 225.7 μm (±12.4 μm). The repeatability this subfield, expressed as a percentage of the mean central macular subfield thickness, was 23.2%. The percentage repeatability of the other macular subfields ranged from 13.2% to 28.7%. The intrasession coefficient of repeatability of choroidal thickness of the central macular subfield was 57.2 μm with a mean choroidal thickness (±SD) of 181 μm (±15.8 μm).
This study suggests that a change >23.2% of retinal thickness and 57.2 μm choroidal thickness in the central macular subfield is required to distinguish true clinical change from measurement variability when using the DRI OCT-1 device to manage patients with nAMD.
To describe the morphological features of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and to report the ability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) to detect the presence of myopic CNV by means of this new technique.
Myopic CNV cases were individuated from a pool of patients with pathological myopia consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016. OCT-A images were assessed for classification of morphological features, and to estimate sensitivity and specificity.
Thirty-six eyes of 28 consecutive patients with myopic CNV were included. In 4 out of 36 eyes it was not possible to classify the CNV ‘shape’, ‘core’, ‘margin’ and ‘appearance’ because the vascular network was not clearly visualised due to the poor quality of the examination. CNV shape on OCT-A was rated as circular in 9 eyes and irregular in 23 eyes. CNV core was visible in 11 eyes. CNV margin was considered as well defined in 16 eyes and poorly defined in 16 eyes. CNV appearance showed an ‘interlacing’ aspect in 16 eyes and a ‘tangled’ aspect in the other 16 eyes. A total of 11 CNVs were defined as active, 9 of which (81.8%) were interlacing, while a total of 21 were inactive, 14 of which (66.7%) were tangled. OCT-A sensitivity turned out to be 90.48% and specificity was 93.75%.
We describe the OCT-A features of myopic CNV secondary to pathological myopia and demonstrate its high sensitivity and specificity for neovascular detection. Qualitative evaluation of OCT-A characteristics may allow one to recognise different patterns, possibly corresponding to different degrees of neovascular activity.
To analyse the long-term outcomes of different types of orbital implant and the results of dermis fat graft for the management of large-area implant exposure.
Retrospective case series. From 1994 to 2015, 256 patients who received primary implantation after enucleation or evisceration and were followed up for an average of 108.9 months were recruited. Detailed characteristics of patients, including previous surgery or trauma, surgical indications and methods, pegging procedure, and implant types were collected. The long-term outcomes were recorded. For patients with extensive implant exposure (diameter of tissue defect >2 cm), implant removal and dermis fat graft were performed.
The risk factors for implant exposure included eviscerated globes and pegged implants. The exposure rates were higher (24.7% in hydroxyapatite (HA), 23.5% in bioceramic and 76.5% in Medpor) as compared with those in previous reports. The average times to exposure were 67.4 months in HA, 52.5 months in bioceramic and 73.4 months in Medpor implants. Among the cases with implant exposure, late exposure (>2 years after operation) accounted for 67% of cases. Thirty eyes with large-area exposure were managed with dermis fat grafts. Twenty-four cases were successfully treated with single surgery. The other six cases developed fornix loss and required additional reconstruction with full thickness skin graft.
Late exposures of porous orbital implants were noted during long-term follow-up. The causes of implant exposure may be associated with pegging procedures and evisceration. The implantation of dermis fat can be an effective procedure for the management of large-area implant exposure.
To examine the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in human cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and investigate whether a correlation exists between the presence of CTGF protein and clinical parameters of the disease.
The protein expression levels of CTGF were analysed by western blots in cultured orbital fibroblasts from 10 patients with GO and 7 age-matched normal controls. Associations between the protein expression of CTGF and the clinical factors of GO, including clinical demographics, thyroid function, clinical activity score (CAS) and ophthalmopathy index (OI), was evaluated.
The mean protein expression levels of CTGF in the GO orbital fibroblasts were significantly higher than those of normal controls (p<0.001). Based on further analysis, the protein expression levels of CTGF in the GO orbital fibroblasts had significant correlation with gender (p=0.029), serum levels of thyrotropin receptor antibodies (p=0.029), CAS (p=0.048) and OI (p=0.043). Especially, there was a significant correlation between protein expression levels of CTGF and lid oedema (p=0.037), proptosis (p=0.045) and corneal involvement (p=0.001).
Our findings revealed that the protein expression levels of CTGF in the GO orbital fibroblasts were significantly highly expressed than those of normal controls, and the elevated CTGF was associated with clinical characteristics and evolution, indicating CTGF may play a role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of GO.
To assess the relationship between vision impairment (VI) and major eye diseases, with vision-specific emotional well-being in a Chinese population.
In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3353 Chinese participants aged 40–80 years answered the emotional well-being scale of the Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire, validated using Rasch analysis. Participants underwent visual acuity testing and collection of sociodemographic and medical data from standardised questionnaires. The relationships between presenting bilateral VI, presence of major eye diseases (cataract, undercorrected refractive error, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy) and emotional well-being were assessed using linear regression models. Stratified analyses for age, gender, education and immigration status were conducted to determine if change in β coefficients differed within each stratum.
Approximately half of patients (n=1805) had normal vision, and 43% (n=1534) and 3.4% (n=114) had moderate and severe bilateral VI, respectively. Vision-specific emotional well-being systematically worsened as severity of bilateral VI increased (p<0.001). Compared with no VI and no eye diseases, respectively, severe bilateral VI (23%; β –1.84; 95% CI –2.23 to –1.43) and glaucoma (β –1.88; 95% CI –3.00 to –0.76) were associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in emotional well-being. The reduction in vision-related emotional well-being was substantially and significantly greater in men compared with women (p<0.05).
Severe VI and glaucoma are associated with substantial decrements in vision-specific emotional well-being, highlighting the importance of preventing progression of vision loss. Evidence-based interventions to improve vision-related coping skills and emotional management for patients with severe VI and glaucoma are warranted.
To report the risk of cataract progression among primary angle closure suspects (PACS) 6 years after they underwent laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI).
In the Chennai Eye Disease Incidence Study, 6 years after their baseline evaluation, 4421 subjects were examined again. As part of a detailed evaluation cataract was graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System II; progression was defined as change of cataract by two or more grades or history of cataract surgery in the 6-year period. Only bilaterally phakic subjects with less than N2 or C2 or P2 cataract at baseline with no history of any form of glaucoma, primary angle closure and pseudoexfoliation were included.
There were 3205 eligible subjects. Of these, 190 had undergone LPI for PACS. In comparison to the study population, they were significantly older (p<0.001), female (p=0.008), urban residents (p=0.001) and patients with hypertension (p<0.001). During the intervening period, 53 subjects had undergone cataract surgery. The cataract progression rate was significantly greater (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.4, p<0.001) in those who had undergone LPI. For the study population the baseline risk factors for progression of cataract were age (p<0.001), female gender (p=0.01), diabetes (p<0.001) and LPI (p<0.001). Diabetes and female gender were significant risk factors for nuclear and cortical cataract progression; LPI was a risk factor only for cortical cataract (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3, p=0.007).
There was significant cataract progression in 6 years following LPI for PACS.
To investigate the role of high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography (HR-ASOCT) in the assessment of pterygia.
Single centre cross-sectional study. Patients with primary pterygium and/or pingueculae were included. Clinical assessment included HR-ASOCT, colour photography, keratometry followed by histology. Associations were tested between HR-ASOCT features of the pterygium and the degree of corneal scarring and elastotic degeneration, astigmatism and best-corrected visual acuity.
29 eyes of 26 patients with pterygium and 6 patients with pinguecula were included. Apical anterior stromal scarring was found in 23 cases (79.3%) reaching a mean depth of 68.8±21.7 µm (minimum: 33 µm, maximum: 126 µm). Increased stromal scarring and subepithelial elastotic degenerative tissue was significantly associated with HR-ASOCT features of flat bridging of the corneoscleral transition zone (p<0.01) reduced thickness of the pterygium head (p=0.01), and a greater degree of corneal astigmatism (p=0.04).
HR-ASOCT is a useful tool for the assessment and monitoring of pterygia in clinical practice. Features associated with increased stromal scarring and astigmatism are reduced thickness of the head of the pterygium and flat bridging of the corneoscleral transition zone.
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) management lacks well-defined guidelines given the variable natural history of this disease and the lack of prospective trials. We conducted an online preferred physician practice survey to track international trends and variations in the management of CSC data.
We designed and distributed an online 27-item questionnaire with secure confidential access to retina specialists with a publication record in CSC. Physicians with at least one publication as first or corresponding author in any national or international peer reviewed journal in the English language on CSC within the last 2 years on PubMed were included. Participants were masked to the responses from other participants.
The response rate was 82.3% (107 out of 130). 79.1% physicians preferred to observe cases of acute CSC. For chronic cases, 66.7% offered photodynamic therapy (PDT) as first line treatment. The most commonly used PDT protocol was full dose and half-fluence (60.6%). For chronic cases with intraretinal cystic changes, 43.1% opted for observation. Enhanced depth imaging, optical tomography was a common diagnostic tool for 59.8%, while indocyanine green angiography was only used by 37.8%. One regional difference was a preference for focal laser in Asia for initial treatment.
While there are some common practice patterns for of CSC, there are still variations in regional and individual practice patterns indicating the need to establish more definitive practice guidelines. This survey data could be useful to plan a prospective study to address many unanswered questions.
To determine the impact of initial visual acuity (VA) on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment outcomes in patients with macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusions in routine clinical practice.
A retrospective study was conducted at a single academic institution to identify 177 treatment naïve patients with macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), hemiretinal vein occlusion (HRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) treated with intravitreal anti-VEGFs. Exclusion criteria included prior intravitreal injection or presence of active confounding ocular disease. Patients were stratified by initial VA; main outcomes measured were average change in VA and mean absolute change in central subfield thickness (CST) at 6 and 12 months.
Patients with BRVO with initial VA of 20/40 or better had no significant changes in average letters gained and CST from baseline (+2.6 letters, p=0.42; –48.94 µm, p=0.12) compared with patients with initial VA between 20/50 and 20/300 (+13.2 letters, p<0.001; –98.20 µm, p<0.001) after 12 months. Patients with CRVO/HRVO with initial VA of 20/320 or worse had the most improvement in average letters gained and CST from baseline (+42.2 letters, p<0.001; –182.84 µm, p=0.004) with anti-VEGF therapy compared with patients with initial VA between 20/50 and 20/300 (+9.4 letters, p=0.016; –160.87 µm, p<0.001) and patients with initial VA of 20/40 or better (–9.6 letters, p=0.14; –47.92 µm, p=0.38).
For macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion, anti-VEGF treatment can result in a greater improvement in average letters gained and in CST for those with poor initial VA compared with those with better initial VA.
To assess the microvascular response of type 3 neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).
Consecutive patients diagnosed with AMD and type 3 neovascularisation based on clinical examination, structural optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography when available were retrospectively evaluated. En face OCTA imaging (3x3 mm scans) with quantitative microvascular analysis was performed at baseline and after a single anti-VEGF intravitreal injection.
17 eyes of 14 patients underwent OCTA before and after anti-VEGF treatment. OCTA demonstrated significant regression of small calibre type 3 neovascular tufts in all eyes. Median lesion area was 0.061 mm2 (range 0.003–0.198 mm2) at baseline and 0.009 mm2 (range 0–0.085 mm2, p=0.0003) at follow-up. Cystoid macular oedema and/or subretinal fluid resolved in all cases after treatment. The type 3 lesions became undetectable with OCTA post-treatment in 5 of the 17 eyes. However, in 11 eyes, large feeder vessels were identified and remained unchanged after treatment.
The microvascular morphology of type 3 neovascularisation secondary to AMD was assessed at baseline and follow-up and showed significant regression in response to anti-VEGF therapy by OCTA. Quantitative OCTA analysis was also performed and confirmed remarkable regression in response to a single intravitreal anti-VEGF injection.
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