Welcome to the Ophthalmology Journal News page! This page will showcase the latest news from the world of Ophthalmology, as published by The British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ).
For the British Ophthalmology Journal Archives, please visit http://bjo.bmj.com/ .
These news items are mainly specific study results that are relevant to the layman.
We have also added another news page with more ‘general’ Opthalmogy news here: Opthamologist News.
Furthermore, we have added a page with general news articles about Eye Health here: Eye Problems Articles , which is a good read for both patients and Ophthalmologists alike.
Ophthalmology Journal News:
To investigate the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy surgery following open globe trauma (OGT). Additionally, to investigate the treatment effect and toxicity of intensive anti-inflammatory agents.
A 2-year, pilot, single-centre prospective, participant and surgeon-masked randomised controlled trial (RCT). Forty patients requiring vitrectomy surgery following OGT were randomised to either standard (control) or study treatment (adjuncts) in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Perioperatively, the adjunct group received intravitreal and subtenons triamcinolone acetonide, oral flurbiprofen and guttae prednisolone acetate 1%. The control group received standard care. Primary outcome was anatomical success at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included final visual acuity, occurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, intraocular pressure rise, number of operations and recruitment rate.
40 patients were recruited within 21 months. Primary outcome assessment showed similar results in anatomical success with 50% (10/20) in the adjunct group compared with 47% (9/19) in the standard group (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.316 to 3.904). Visual outcomes were better in the adjunct group with a final median visual acuity of 31 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters compared with 25 ETDRS letters in the standard group. A higher proportion of patients gained 10, 20 and 30 ETDRS letters in the adjunct group (80%, 65% and 50%, respectively) compared with the standard group (52.6%, 52.6% and 42.1%). Fewer adjunct patients (15%, n=3) had poor visual outcomes (Zero ETDRS letters) compared with 42.1%, (n=8).
An RCT in this population is deliverable and estimated recruitment rates are realistic. Results and patient discussions determined that the definitive study should have vision as a primary outcome. This pilot study is supportive of there being a positive treatment effect of intensive anti-inflammatory agents in OGT.
European Clinical Trials Database 2007-005138-35; Results.
Distributions of measured data are often well modelled by known probability distributions, which provide a useful description of their underlying properties such as location (average), spread (variation) and shape. Statisticians use probability distributions to interpret and attribute meaning, draw conclusions and answer research questions using the measurements or data that researchers gather during their studies. Different types of data follow different probability distributions, and these distributions are characterised by certain features called parameters. Even the most statistically averse of researchers is likely to have heard of the normal distribution, which is often used to approximate the distribution of continuous or measurement data such as intraocular pressure, central retinal thickness and degree of proptosis. The normal distribution follows a ‘bell-shaped curve’ (although with a rim stretching to ±infinity) the shape of which is specified by the mean and SD, with different values of each, giving rise to different...
To report the effect of bevacizumab versus dexamethasone on hard exudates (HEX) in diabetic macular oedema (DME).
Post hoc analysis of 24-month data from the Randomised clinical trial of BEVacizumab OR DEXamethasone for diabetic macular oedema (BEVORDEX) phase 2 multicentre randomised clinical trial. Eyes with centre-involving DME resistant to or unlikely to benefit from macular laser therapy were included. Eyes were randomly assigned to bevacizumab every 4 weeks or Ozurdex dexamethasone implant (DEX) every 16 weeks, both as required. The 68 eyes from 48 patients that completed 24-month follow-up were analysed. Two masked graders assessed extent and location of HEX on baseline, 12-month and 24-month foveal-centred colour fundus photographs using validated grading software.
Macular HEX was present in 60% of study eyes. Of these, 21 eyes were treated with DEX and 20 eyes with bevacizumab. Both treatments led to reduction in area of macular HEX at 12 months and 24 months. There was greater regression of HEX from the foveal centre in DEX-treated eyes (median change +890 µm, IQR=1040 µm) than bevacizumab-treated eyes (median change +7.0 µm, IQR=590 µm) at 12 months (p=0.04) but the difference was no longer statistically significant (p=0.10) by 24 months (DEX +1400 µm, IQR=1590 µm; bevacizumab +20 µm, IQR=2680 µm). Reassuringly, no study eye developed HEX at the foveal centre, a visually devastating consequence of diabetic maculopathy.
Bevacizumab and DEX were effective in reducing area of HEX in eyes with DME. DEX provided more rapid regression of HEX from the foveal centre although bevacizumab-treated eyes started to catch up by 24 months. Distance from the foveal centre as well as total area of macular HEX should be assessed when evaluating treatments for foveal-threatening HEX.
Restoring the facial appearance in acquired anophthalmos entails precision fitting of a customised ocular prosthesis. The fabrication is an artisanal process, and is primarily based on an impression of the anophthalmic cavity. This is usually achieved by the impression-moulding method, which, however, may introduce errors, resulting in a poorly fitted prosthesis. We developed a new method in the manufacturing of a customised ocular prosthesis based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. An ocular prosthesis, based on a three-dimensional (3D) printed impression-free mould of the anophthalmic cavity, was successfully fitted in a 68-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a customised ocular prosthesis designed with the aid of 3D printing.
To compare the efficacy and safety of intracameral (IC) administration at the beginning of cataract surgery, of Mydrane, a standardised ophthalmic combination of tropicamide 0.02%, phenylephrine 0.31% and lidocaine 1%, to a standard topical regimen.
In this international phase III, prospective, randomised study, the selected eye of 555 patients undergoing phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation received 200 μL of Mydrane (Mydrane group) just after the first incision or a topical regimen of one drop each of tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 10% repeated three times (reference group). The primary efficacy variable was achievement of capsulorhexis without additional mydriatics. The non-inferiority of Mydrane to the topical regimen was tested. The main outcome measures were pupil size, patient perception of ocular discomfort and safety.
Capsulorhexis without additional mydriatics was performed in 98.9% of patients and 94.7% in the Mydrane and reference groups, respectively. Both groups achieved adequate mydriasis (>7 mm) during capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification and IOL insertion. IOL insertion was classified as ‘routine’ in a statistically greater number of eyes in the Mydrane group compared with the reference group (p=0.047). Patients in the Mydrane group reported statistically greater comfort than the reference group before IOL insertion (p=0.034). Safety data were similar between groups.
Mydrane is an effective and safe alternative to standard eye drops for initiating and maintaining intraoperative mydriasis and analgesia. Patients who received IC Mydrane were significantly more comfortable before IOL insertion than the reference group. Surgeons found IOL insertion less technically challenging with IC Mydrane.
The aim of this review was to quantify the global variation in childhood myopia prevalence over time taking account of demographic and study design factors. A systematic review identified population-based surveys with estimates of childhood myopia prevalence published by February 2015. Multilevel binomial logistic regression of log odds of myopia was used to examine the association with age, gender, urban versus rural setting and survey year, among populations of different ethnic origins, adjusting for study design factors. 143 published articles (42 countries, 374 349 subjects aged 1–18 years, 74 847 myopia cases) were included. Increase in myopia prevalence with age varied by ethnicity. East Asians showed the highest prevalence, reaching 69% (95% credible intervals (CrI) 61% to 77%) at 15 years of age (86% among Singaporean-Chinese). Blacks in Africa had the lowest prevalence; 5.5% at 15 years (95% CrI 3% to 9%). Time trends in myopia prevalence over the last decade were small in whites, increased by 23% in East Asians, with a weaker increase among South Asians. Children from urban environments have 2.6 times the odds of myopia compared with those from rural environments. In whites and East Asians sex differences emerge at about 9 years of age; by late adolescence girls are twice as likely as boys to be myopic. Marked ethnic differences in age-specific prevalence of myopia exist. Rapid increases in myopia prevalence over time, particularly in East Asians, combined with a universally higher risk of myopia in urban settings, suggest that environmental factors play an important role in myopia development, which may offer scope for prevention.
Jung JW, Kim SM, Han SH, et al. Effect of the pigment-free optical zone diameter of decorative tinted soft contact lenses on visual function. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100:633–37.
In the Funding statement, the grant number is incorrect. "Yonsei University College of Medicine for 2014 (6-2014-0036)." should read "Yonsei University College of Medicine for 2014 (6-2014-0159)."
To analyse peripapillary choroidal thickness (PCT) in non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION).
28 patients diagnosed with NAION (37 affected and 19 unaffected eyes) and 38 disease-free control individuals (38 eyes) were analysed using enhanced-depth imaging of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. A vertical and a horizontal raster scan centred on the optic nerve were obtained per eye. PCT was measured at the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid–sclera junction at 500 μm intervals up to 2000 μm away from the optic nerve. Statistical analysis was used to compare average PCT and to correlate PCT with other ocular and systemic parameters.
Mean PCT in NAION eyes and control group was 148.18±42.68 μm and 182.90±59.81 μm, respectively (p=0.005). Except for inferior PCT (p=0.158), superior, nasal and temporal PCT were significantly thinner in the NAION eyes than in the control group (p=0.006, 0.002 and 0.046). Thinner PCT, adjusted for refractive error, was associated with the diagnosis of NAION (p=0.048). Similarly, unaffected contralateral eyes showed a significant thinner PCT compared with the control group (p=0.024). Diagnosis of NAION was negatively associated with PCT in NAION eyes (p=0.008; OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99) and in their contralateral unaffected eyes (p=0.043; OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99).
Eyes affected by NAION and contralateral unaffected eyes showed significantly thinner PCT compared with disease-free control eyes after adjusting for refractive error.
In patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS), treatment relieves eyelid spasms on the affected side, thus changes in corneal topography and eyelid morphometry may be observed after treatment. We aimed to evaluate these parameters during a 4-month period in patients with HFS treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A).
This prospective study evaluated eyelid morphometric and corneal topographic changes in patients with HFS before onabotulinum toxin A application, and after 15 days and 2, 3 and 4 months.
24 patients were treated with BTX-A. On the normal side, the mean palpebral fissure height (PF), interpalpebral surface area (ISA), steep K and astigmatism values were 8.7±1.98 mm, 122.09±39.37 mm2, 44.99±1.45 D and 0.9±0.64 D, respectively, before treatment. A statistically significant difference was not observed in these parameters after treatment (p>0.05). On the affected side, the mean PF, ISA, steep K and astigmatism were 5.5±1.77 mm, 67.68±28.49 mm2, 46.91±3.57 D and 2.63±2.46 D, respectively, before treatment. We observed a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in the mean PF and ISA on the affected side 15 days (8.36±1.91 mm and 115.92±34.44 mm2, respectively), 2 months (8.18±1.80 mm and 112.22±33.57 mm2, respectively) and 3 months (7.27±1.65 mm and 95.48±27.80 mm2, respectively) after treatment. A statistically significant decrease in steep K and astigmatism was observed at 2 months (45.14±1.20 D and 1.01±0.58 D, respectively) and 3 months (45.64±1.77 D and 1.36±1.31 D, respectively) after treatment.
The results suggest that treatment with BTX-A in patients with HFS leads to eyelid and corneal changes on the affected eye that are significant during the known period of action of the toxin. Thus, caution should be taken when performing ophthalmological examination in patients with HFS, since it may vary according to BTX-A period of action.
To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the peripapillary retinal thickness (pRT) and the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome.
This was a cross-sectional, observational case series. We studied 34 eyes of 17 treatment-naïve patients with POEMS syndrome whose intracranial pressure was within the normal range. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SD-OCT) examinations consisted of circle scans of 3.45 mm diameter around the optic disc. The pRT was automatically measured in the SD-OCT images and was used for the statistical analysis. The serum level of VEGF was measured by ELISAs, and the correlation between the pRT and the serum level of VEGF was determined. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent factors that were correlated with the pRT.
There was a significant positive correlation between the serum levels of VEGF and the average pRT of the two eyes of each patient (r=0.81, p<0.0001). There was a significant correlation between the pRT of the right and left eyes with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.839. Multiple regression analysis showed that the serum levels of VEGF were independent contributors to the pRT (standard regression coefficient=0.59, p=0.012).
The significant correlation between the pRT and the serum level of VEGF suggests that the higher serum level of VEGF might be associated with the development of the optic disc oedema in patients with POEMS syndrome.
– For more Ophthalmology news, please browse our other News pages.