Welcome to the Ophthalmology Journal News page! This page will showcase the latest news from the world of Ophthalmology, as published by The British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ).
For the British Ophthalmology Journal Archives, please visit http://bjo.bmj.com/ .
These news items are mainly specific study results that are relevant to the layman.
We have also added another news page with more ‘general’ Opthalmogy news here: Opthamologist News.
Furthermore, we have added a page with general news articles about Eye Health here: Eye Problems Articles , which is a good read for both patients and Ophthalmologists alike.
Ophthalmology Journal News:
Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are a major cause of vision loss in people aged 50 years and older. Current therapeutic options limit the consequences of RVO but do not eliminate the cause. Cannulation of the involved vessel and removal of the clot may provide a more permanent solution with a less demanding follow-up. However, cannulation of smaller retinal veins remains challenging. This paper explores the use of ocriplasmin (recombinant plasmin without its kringles) to clear RVO, using a robotic micromanipulator.
Branch RVO were induced in a porcine model with rose bengal followed by 532 nm endolaser to the superior venous branch of the optic nerve. The vein was cannulated proximal to the occlusion or beyond the first branching vessel from the obstruction. The vein was infused with a physiologic citric acid buffer solution (CAM) or CAM/ocriplasmin. The time of cannulation, number of attempts, and the ability to release the thrombus were recorded.
Cannulation and infusion was possible in all the cases. The use of a micromanipulator allowed for a consistent cannulation of the retinal vein and positional stability allowed the vein to remain cannulated for up to 20 min. In none of the attempts (5/5) with CAM did the thrombus dissolve, despite repeat infusion/relaxation cycles. In 7/7 injections of CAM/ocriplasmin near to the point of obstruction, the clot started to dissolve within a few minutes of injection. An infusion, attempted beyond the first venous branch point proximal to the clot, was unsuccessful in 2/3 attempts.
Ocriplasmin is effective in resolving RVO if injected close to the site of occlusion with the use of a micromanipulator.
To study various types of morphological patterns of the air bubble and their relation to a peripheral paracentesis after air injection in corneal stroma in vitro experiment.
Air was injected into the donor corneas from the endothelial side and pattern was noted. Four different scenarios were created, namely (a) air injection into the deep stroma (n=11), (b) air injection into the superficial stroma (n=3), (c) air injection into the deep stroma after making a peripheral incision internal to the trabecular meshwork region that simulated an anteriorly placed paracentesis incision, with the site of air injection within a clock hour of the peripheral incision (n=7) and (d) air injection into the deep stroma after making a peripheral incision, the site of air injection being 180° away from the peripheral incision site (n=3).
Air injection at deep posterior stroma resulted in the formation of type-1 and type-2 bubbles, type 2 began from the periphery and followed the type-1 bubble pattern in majority of the donor corneas. The type-1 pattern was noted as a bubble in the central part of the donor disc that did not reach the peripheral extent of the cornea. The type-2 pattern was a bubble that started at the peripheral cornea and expanded but was limited by the limbus circumferentially. With a full-thickness peripheral incision and air injection in the same clock hour of the incision, only a type-1 bubble pattern was noted with air leakage from the site of the incision.
The results of the study corroborate with the clinical observations made during deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK). The placement of the paracentesis has a bearing on the pattern of the air bubble and can be used to an advantage during DLK surgery.
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) reported the beneficial impact of antioxidant and zinc supplements on the risk of progression to advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We evaluated the role of genetic variants in modifying the relationship between supplementation and progression to advanced AMD.
Among 4124 eyes (2317 subjects with a genetic specimen), 882 progressed from no AMD, early or intermediate AMD to overall advanced disease, including geographic atrophy (GA) and neovascular disease (NV) over the course of the clinical trial. Survival analysis using individual eyes as the unit of analysis was used to assess the effect of supplementation on AMD outcomes, with adjustment for demographic, environmental, ocular and genetic covariates. Interaction effects between supplement groups and individual complement factor H (CFH) Y402H and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) genotypes, and composite genetic risk groups combining the number of risk alleles for both loci, were evaluated for their association with progression.
Among antioxidant and zinc supplement users compared with the placebo group, subjects with a non-risk genotype for CFH (TT) had a lower risk of progression to advanced AMD (HR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.95, p=0.033). No significant treatment effect was apparent among subjects who were homozygous for the CFH risk allele (CC). A protective effect was observed among high-risk ARMS2 (TT) carriers (HR: 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.82, p=0.005). Similar results were seen for the NV subtype but not GA.
The effectiveness of antioxidant and zinc supplementation appears to differ by genotype. Further study is needed to determine the biological basis for this interaction.
To determine trends in the number of glaucoma laser and surgical procedures performed in Australia between 1994 and 2014.
Medicare claims were analysed to determine the number of glaucoma-related procedures reimbursed in Australia between 1994 and 2014. Glaucoma procedures were identified by Medicare Benefits Schedule item number and analysed by age range, gender, state, month and year.
Laser trabeculoplasty rates declined 60% between 1994 and 2003 before increasing a dramatic 353% between 2003 and 2014. Laser iridotomies increased 281% over the study period while cyclodestructive procedures increased 207%. The number of primary filtering operations for glaucoma fell 68% from a peak in 1996 to a low in 2006 and then remained stable. However, the number of filtering operations in eyes where a previous filtering operation had been performed increased 27%. There was a marked increase in glaucoma drainage device insertion, increasing 234% over the study period.
There has been a substantial increase in laser trabeculoplasty procedures in Australia, following a decline between 1994 and 2003. Primary filtering operations for glaucoma have declined in number while glaucoma drainage devices are playing an increasingly prominent role in the surgical management of glaucoma.
Diabetic macular oedema affects visual acuity to a varying degree. The current treatment of choice is intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that has proven both its anatomical and visual efficacy in several large randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Although most patients respond well to anti-VEGF agents, some, however, show a moderate or even poor response. There is no clear consensus as to how to manage these patients, or define them. In addition, identifying early in the course of treatment which patients will respond and which patients will not is paramount to any personalised treatment regimen. Most large RCTs such as RESTORE and Protocol I have attempted post hoc analyses to identify demographic, clinical, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography findings that might predict patient response. Although some factors were found to be predictive, the lack of uniformity between the different RCTs means that no consensus exists as to which of these factors can be reliably used. This review looks at the large diabetic macular oedema RCTs such as RESTORE, Protocol I, READ-2 and BOLT in an attempt to identify common prognostic indicators between the various studies. We also attempted to look at several other OCT parameters such as the inner segment-outer segment (IS-OS) layer, the external limiting membrane layer, and choroidal thickness to help determine whether they can truly predict visual outcomes in patients being treated with anti-VEGF therapy. Finally, we provide a simplified summary about which factors might be relevant in clinical practice to help guide physicians in treatment decisions.
To report the long-term anatomical and functional outcomes of patients with centre-involved diabetic macular oedema (DME) treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB).
Retrospective case series. Patients diagnosed with centre-involved DME that were treated with at least one injection of 1.25 mg IVB and had a minimum follow-up of 60 months. Patients underwent measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography at baseline, 6-month, 12-month, 24-month, 36-month, 48-month and 60-month visits. The paired samples t test was used to compare the central macular thickness (CMT) and BCVA with baseline values. Statistical significance was indicated by p<0.05.
Two hundred and one consecutive patients (296 eyes) were included. The mean number of IVB injections per eye was 8.4±7.1 (range: 1–47 injections). At 5 years, the BCVA remained stable at 20/100 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution=0.7±0.4). Eighty-six (29%) eyes improved ≥2 lines of BCVA, 129 (43.6%) eyes remained stable and 81 (27.4%) eyes lost ≥2 lines of BCVA at 60 months. Mean CMT decreased from 403.5±142.2 μm at baseline to 313.7±117.7 μm over 5 years follow-up (p≤0.0001).
The early visual gains due to IVB were not maintained 5 years after treatment.
Cataract surgery has progressed from large incision to smaller incisions, which do not require sutures. Anaesthesia too has progressed from general anaesthesia to local anaesthesia to topical anaesthesia. The ideal anaesthesia for cataract surgery would be one that is easy to administer, provides adequate pain relief during surgery and is associated with fewer complications.
This study was done to find out the most suitable anaesthesia for patients with fewer complications and also to look at the trend of anaesthesia being used.
A retrospective analysis was done of patients who underwent cataract surgery from 2007 to 2014 in Hospital Melaka. Data were obtained from the National Eye Database and analysed using SPSS. Trend of types of anaesthesia used and the associated complications with each were studied.
The most frequently used anaesthesia was topical anaesthesia, which showed an upward trend followed by subtenon in turn showing a downward trend. Subtenon anaesthesia was associated with more intraoperative and postoperative complications while topical anaesthesia was associated with fewer complications.
Topical anaesthesia has shown a steady increase in usage and is the ideal anaesthesia, which has been associated with fewer complications.
To investigate the outcomes of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in eyes with both neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR).
Patients from four high-volume referral centres who presented with neovascular AMD and DR, and received intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, were included. Data retrieved from medical records and multimodal imaging were analysed.
Forty-one eyes of 38 patients (21 male, 17 female; mean age 78±8 years) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 28±19 (12–72) months with a mean of 9.2±7.4 intravitreal anti-VEGF injections per eye were administrated. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.5±0.3 logMAR; it improved significantly at 1 year (0.3±0.3 logMAR; p=0.02) and returned to baseline values at last follow-up visit (0.6±0.4 logMAR; p=0.26). Mean central macular thickness (CMT) significantly decreased from 408±150 μm to 328±104 μm at 1 year (p=0.021) and to 335±127 μm at last follow-up visit (p=0.032). The baseline severity of DR was graded as mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR) in 21 (51%) eyes, moderate NPDR in 14 (34%), severe NPDR in 4 (10%) and inactive proliferative DR in 2 (5%). At last follow-up visit, one eye graded as moderate NPDR improved to mild, one eye graded as severe NPDR improved to mild and one eye graded as severe NPDR was inactivated due to panretinal photocoagulation.
Outcomes analysis of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy for eyes with both neovascular AMD and DR showed stabilisation of BCVA and reduction of CMT, along with stable or improved DR stage throughout follow-up.
To evaluate changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPCT) after acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation provoked by a dark room prone provocative test (DRPPT).
The prospective cohort study included 114 eyes from 65 individuals who had an IOP elevation ≥2 mm Hg during the DRPPT. The participants stayed in a dark room for 2 h with the forehead placed on a desk. At baseline and within 5 min after the end of the DRPPT, tonometry and enhanced depth imaging by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were carried out.
During the DRPPT, IOP increased by 10.1±10.9 mm Hg, SFCT decreased significantly (p<0.001) from 280±80 µm to 267±76 µm and PPCT decreased significantly (p<0.001) from 177±74 to 169±70 µm. In multivariate analysis, a more marked SFCT thinning was associated with higher IOP increase (p<0.001) and shallower anterior chamber depth at baseline (p=0.01). In a similar manner, a higher PPCT change was correlated with a higher IOP increase (p<0.001), and a thicker choroidal thickness at baseline (p<0.001).
Choroidal thickness in the subfoveal region and in the peripapillary region decreased parallel to an acute increase in IOP in individuals 2 h after a dark room test. Choroidal thickness depends on the actual IOP, which may be noted when choroidal thickness is measured.
To study the time to retreatment in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) that had been treatment-free for intervals of 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months during the maintenance phase of ranibizumab therapy within the UK National Health Service.
In this multicentre national nAMD database study, structured data were collected from 14 centres (involving 12 951 eyes receiving 92 976 ranibizumab injections). Patients were treated with three fixed, monthly injections in a loading phase of treatment, followed by a pro re nata retreatment regimen in a maintenance phase. Eyes with a treatment-free interval (TFI) of 3 months, 6 months, 9 months or 12 months in the maintenance phase were identified and the time to retreatment after these TFIs was determined.
The time to retreatment for the 20th and 50th centiles was 0.58/2.54 months after a 3-month TFI, 2.07/9.62 months after a 6-month TFI, 3.69/15.84 months after a 9-month TFI and 5.90/22.49 months after a 12-month TFI. Following a TFI of 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months, 68%, 44%, 31% and 21% of eyes required retreatments after an additional 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Similarly, after 12 months of follow-up, 77%, 56%, 43% and 34% of these eyes required retreatment.
This study provides times to retreatment in eyes with nAMD that have been treatment-free for intervals of 3–12 months and demonstrates the likelihood of repeat therapy within the next year, even after a TFI of 12 months. These outcomes can help plan appropriate follow-up intervals for patients who have been treatment-free for intervals of up to 12 months.
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