Welcome to the Ophthalmology Journal News page! This page will showcase the latest news from the world of Ophthalmology, as published by The British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ).
For the British Ophthalmology Journal Archives, please visit http://bjo.bmj.com/ .
These news items are mainly specific study results that are relevant to the layman.
We have also added another news page with more ‘general’ Opthalmogy news here: Opthamologist News.
Furthermore, we have added a page with general news articles about Eye Health here: Eye Problems Articles , which is a good read for both patients and Ophthalmologists alike.
Ophthalmology Journal News:
To assess the rate of ‘treatment-requiring diabetic macular oedema (DMO)’ in eyes for the two years before and after cataract surgery.
Multicentre national diabetic retinopathy (DR) database study with anonymised data extraction across 19 centres from an electronic medical record system. Inclusion criteria: eyes undergoing cataract surgery in patients with diabetes with no history of DMO prior to study start. The minimum dataset included: age, visual acuity (all time-points), injection episodes, timing of cataract surgery and ETDRS grading of retinopathy and maculopathy. Main outcome measure: rate of developing first episode of treatment-requiring DMO in relation to timing of cataract surgery in the same eye.
4850 eyes met the inclusion criteria. The rate of developing treatment-requiring DMO in this cohort was 2.9% in the year prior to surgery versus 5.3% in the year after surgery (p<0.01). The risk of ‘treatment-requiring DMO’ increased sharply after surgery, peaking in the 3–6 months' period (annualised rates of 5.2%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.0% for the 0–3, 3–6, 6–9 and 9–12 months' post-operative time periods respectively). Risk was associated with pre-operative grade of retinopathy: risk of DMO in the first year post-operatively being 1.0% (no DR pre-operatively), 5.4% (mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy; NPDR), 10.0% (moderate NPDR), 13.1% (severe NPDR) and 4.9% (PDR) (p<0.01).
This large real-world study demonstrates that the rate of developing treatment-requiring DMO increases sharply in the year after cataract surgery for all grades of retinopathy, peaking in the 3–6 months' postoperative period. Patients with moderate and severe NPDR are at particularly high risk.
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) in a multi-hospital-based DR screening programme among patients with diabetes in China, the Lifeline Express Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program.
Patients with diabetes in eight hospitals across mainland China (both southern and northern) from January 2014 to July 2016 were recruited in this programme. All participants underwent a standardised interview and examinations and received digital fundus photography. DR severity was graded from retinal fundus photographs by retina specialists in the reading centre of Joint Shantou International Eye Center, according to the grading standards of the English National Screening Programme. STDR was defined as the presence of preproliferative DR (R2), proliferative DR (R3) and/or maculopathy (M1).
16 305 patients with diabetes were screened for DR in total. Fundus photographs were gradable for 15 078 patients (92.5%). The age–gender-standardised prevalence of any DR and STDR was 27.9% (95% CI, 27.2% to 28.6%) and 12.6% (95% CI, 12.1% to 13.1%), respectively. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, younger age (OR, 0.967), longer duration of diabetes (OR, 1.093), higher haemoglobin A1c (OR, 1.115), higher fasting plasma glucose (OR, 1.074), higher systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.014), faster heart rate (OR, 1.010), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR, 1.149), lower triglycerides (OR, 0.975), higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (OR, 1.012) and elevated serum creatinine level (OR, 1.003) were associated with the presence of DR. Similar risk factors, except for BUN and triglycerides, were found for STDR.
The prevalence of DR and STDR in diabetes was 27.9% and 12.6%, respectively in this multi-hospital-based population across China. Compared with Western population with diabetes, similar risk factors for DR and STDR were found in Chinese patients with diabetes.
To determine if the anterior choroid is involved in ocular change during the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM).
Fifty-three healthy volunteers aged 18–65 years with normal visual field test results and no history of intraocular pressure (IOP) exceeding 21 mm Hg were recruited. Anterior and posterior choroidal changes before and during VM were recorded by ultrasound microscope and swept-source optical coherence tomography, respectively. Parameters of the anterior segment included ciliary body thickness (CBT0), thickness of the choroid at a distance of 4 mm from the root of the iris (CT4), anterior placement of the ciliary body (APCB) and trabecular–ciliary angle (TCA). Thickness of different layers of retina and posterior choroid were also measured and compared before and during VM. IOP, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), axial length, spherical equivalent refractive error and pupil diameter (PD) were also recorded and analysed.
VM caused elevated IOP, systolic BP, diastolic BP and increased HR. There was a significant increase in anterior parameters including CBT0, CT4 and APCB (p<0.001), but not in TCA or PD (p>0.05). The mean change of CBT0, CT4 and APCB were: from 1.00±0.09 mm to 1.11±0.10 mm (p<0.001), from 0.29±0.04 mm to 0.36±0.05 mm (p<0.001), from 0.76±0.11 mm to 0.88±0.13 mm (p<0.001), respectively. However, there is no significant change in posterior choroid (from 215.74±60.23 µm to 214.82±61.32 µm, p=0.17).
We found that VM did not affect the posterior choroid, but it did cause thickening of the anterior choroid and the ciliary body, both of which led to a larger anterior placement of the ciliary body and a narrowed anterior chamber. The anterior (but not the posterior) choroid could be related to IOP elevation and a narrowed anterior chamber in primary angle closure diseases.
Sex hormones are associated with the physiology and pathophysiology of almost all organs in the body, as well as most diseases. Interest in the associations between sex hormones and ocular tissues has increased in recent years. Androgens may have a positive effect on dry eye, whereas the effects of oestrogen on ocular conditions remain unclear. Intracrinology, the local synthesis and metabolism of hormones that is unique to humans, is of relevance to the eye and may help to explain why studies of the relationship between oestrogens and dry eye signs and symptoms are inconclusive. Knowledge of the pathways of hormone formation and metabolism is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of ocular disease including dry eye. This review examines the mechanisms of steroidal sex hormone biosynthesis and reviews the significance of locally produced sex hormones, with a focus on ocular surface tissues. Much of the current literature is based on animal studies, which may not be transferable to humans due to the absence of intracrine production in animals. A large proportion of the human studies investigate systemic hormone levels rather than local levels. There is subsequently a need for additional studies to provide a better understanding of the local production of sex hormones within the human eye and ocular surface and to clarify the relationships between ocular levels of sex hormones and conditions including dry eye.
To evaluate the effect of adjuvant intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (ITA) for radiation maculopathy (RM) recalcitrant to high-dose bevacizumab in patients with choroidal melanoma after plaque radiotherapy.
Eight eyes of eight patients with RM secondary to plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma, recalcitrant to high-dose bevacizumab (3.0 mg) were retrospectively evaluated. Intravitreal injections of ITA (4 mg/0.1 mL) were performed at 4-week to 16-week intervals as an adjunct to continued bevacizumab therapy. Change in central foveal thickness (CFT) as measured by optical coherence tomography and change in visual acuity (VA) were the main outcome measures.
At the time of diagnosis of choroidal melanoma, VA was 20/20 to 20/50 in 88% (n=7) and 20/60 to 20/200 in 12% (n=1). The mean radiation dose to the fovea was 81 Gy (median 75.2 Gy; range: 22.72–132.8 Gy). The mean onset to RM was 25 months after plaque therapy (median 25 months; range 12–44 months). At the time of initiation of ITA, VA was 20/20 to 20/50 in 38% (3/8), and 20/60 to 20/200 in 62% (5/8). After initiation of ITA, VA was stable or improved in 100% of patients (n=8) at 3 months, 88% at 6 months, 88% at 9 months and 75% at 12 months. Mean CFT was 417 µm at ITA initiation, 339 µm at 1 month, 355 µm at 6 months, 339 µm at 9 months and 359 µm at 1 year.
Intravitreal triamcinolone can be added to preserve vision and decrease macular oedema in patients with RM recalcitrant to high-dose anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents.
Corneal keratectasia is one of the complications associated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) that results in vision impairment. The pathogenesis of post-LASIK ectasia (PLE) remains underexplored. We report the tear cytokine profile and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings in eyes with PLE.
This retrospective study included age-matched 7 (14 eyes) post-LASIK controls (PLCs) and 6 (12 eyes) PLE subjects. Corneal topography was used to categorise the subjects into PLC and PLE groups. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores obtained were based on standard questionnaire and IVCM images were used to determine corneal dendritic cells density (DCD) and sub-basal nerve plexus morphology. Inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the tears were quantified using flow cytometry based cytometric bead array.
Pentacam-based scores, OSDI scores and corneal DCD were significantly (p<0.05) higher in patients with PLE compared with PLC. Discomfort-related subscale of OSDI score exhibited a positive correlation with total corneal DCD in the PLE cohort. The fold difference of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP1) (3.4±0.6) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the PLE cohorts and a positive correlation between CCL2/MCP1 levels and total corneal DCD was also observed in the PLE cohort.
The current study found a significant difference in the tear film cytokine profile between normal and PLE eyes. Presence of increased corneal dendritic cells and altered tear cytokines suggests an ongoing inflammatory response in PLE.
An association between increased ocular surface disease index, corneal dendritic cell density, sub-basal nerve plexus morphology and tear inflammatory factors was observed in patients with ongoing post-LASIK ectasia.
A quarter of myopic children in the second grade of school in Taipei had greater than or equal to one diopter of myopic progression in 1 year. Close reading distance and greater baseline spherical equivalent refractive error were associated with faster myopic progression.
The features of glaucoma progression in myopic eyes were different between eyes with an optic disc shape alteration, particularly optic disc tilt, and eyes with...
To evaluate the 1-year progression of myopia and associated risk factors in second-grade primary school children.
The myopia investigation study in Taipei provided semiannual visual acuity testing and cycloplegic refraction for all second-grade primary school children (mean age: 7.49 years) in Taipei who provided parental consent. A questionnaire was distributed to the participants’ parents before the first and third examinations. We evaluated 1-year follow-up data for children noted to have myopia on the first examination. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to assess risk factors associated with myopia progression. Myopia progression was categorised, based on the change in spherical equivalent (SE) over 1 year, as slow (SE>–0.5 dioptres (D)), moderate (–1.0 D<SE≤–0.5 D) or fast (SE≤–1.0 D). Of the 4214 myopic children, data were analysed for 3256 (77.3%) who completed the 1-year follow-up evaluation.
The baseline SE was –1.43±1.1 D. The average SE was –0.42±0.85 D, with 46.96%, 28.50% and 24.54% of the study subjects showing slow, moderate and fast myopia progression, respectively. When compared with slow myopia progression, fast myopia progression was associated with a greater myopic SE at baseline (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.72) and a shorter eye–object distance when doing near work (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.78). More outdoor activity time and self-reported cycloplegic treatment were not associated with slow myopia progression.
Children with fast annual myopia progression were more myopic at baseline and had a shorter reading distance. Our study results highlight the importance of having children keep a proper reading distance.
To compare the effectiveness of continuous aflibercept versus pro re nata (PRN) ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).
Multicentre, national electronic medical record (EMR) study on treatment naive nAMD eyes undergoing PRN ranibizumab or continuous (fixed or treat and extend (F/TE)) aflibercept from 21 UK hospitals. Anonymised data were extracted, and eyes were matched on age, gender, starting visual acuity (VA) and year of starting treatment. Primary outcome was change in vision at 1 year.
1884 eyes (942 eyes in each group) were included. At year 1, patients on PRN ranibizumab gained 1.6 ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) letters (95% CI 0.5 to 2.7, p=0.004), while patients on F/TE aflibercept gained 6.1 letters (95% CI 5.1 to 7.1, p=2.2e-16). Change in vision at 1 year of the F/TE aflibercept group was 4.1 letters higher (95% CI 2.5 to 5.8, p=1.3e-06) compared with the PRN ranibizumab group after adjusting for age, starting VA, gender and year of starting therapy. The F/TE aflibercept group had significantly more injections compared with the PRN ranibizumab group (7.0 vs 5.8, p<2.2e-16), but required less clinic visits than the PRN ranibizumab group (10.8 vs 9.0, p<2.2e-16). Cost-effectiveness analysis showed an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 58 047.14 GBP/quality-adjusted life year for continuous aflibercept over PRN ranibizumab.
Aflibercept achieved greater VA gains at 1 year than ranibizumab. The observed VA differences are small and likely to be related to more frequent treatment with aflibercept, suggesting that ranibizumab should also be delivered by F/TE posology.
To compare the clinical courses of patients with myopic primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) with and without optic disc shape alterations.
In this longitudinal retrospective study, 146 eyes from 146 patients with myopic (axial length(AXL), >24 mm) POAG were classified according to optic disc shape alterations defined by optic disc tilt and/or rotation. Glaucomatous progression was determined by either serial optic disc/retinal nerve fibre layer photographs or visual field (VF) exams. Rate of progression was calculated from serial VF mean deviation (MD) and visual field index values.
Mean age, AXL and follow-up duration were 50.1±12.7 years, 26.1±1.6 mm and 4.6±1.3 years, respectively. The progression rate was faster in eyes with a non-tilted optic disc than with a tilted optic disc (–0.30(95% CI; –0.42 to –0.16) vs 0.05(–0.07 to 0.17) dB/year, –0.85(–1.20 to –0.49) vs –0.35(–0.68 to –0.03) %/year, all p<0.05). Twenty eyes (21.3%) in the non-tilted group but only one eye (1.9%) in the tilted group showed VF progression in both superior and inferior hemifields. By logistic regression analysis, worse initial VF MD and less optic disc tilt were significantly associated with both superior and inferior VF progression (OR=0.909 and 0.561 (for 0.1 tilt ratio); p=0.020 and 0.018, respectively).
Significant differences in glaucomatous progression were found between eyes with and without optic disc shape alterations, particularly disc tilt. More localised and stable courses of glaucoma progression were observed in eyes with tilted optic discs.
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