Welcome to the Ophthalmology Journal News page! This page will showcase the latest news from the world of Ophthalmology, as published by The British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ).
For the British Ophthalmology Journal Archives, please visit http://bjo.bmj.com/ .
These news items are mainly specific study results that are relevant to the layman.
We have also added another news page with more ‘general’ Opthalmogy news here: Opthamologist News.
Furthermore, we have added a page with general news articles about Eye Health here: Eye Problems Articles , which is a good read for both patients and Ophthalmologists alike.
Ophthalmology Journal News:
Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) may present to the ophthalmologist with signs suggestive of oculocutaneous albinism. Consideration of HPS as a differential diagnosis is important due to its potential systemic complications. HPS6 is a rarely reported subtype.
Three patients from two families underwent clinical examination, imaging and targeted systemic investigations. Electrophysiology with visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) was performed in both children of family 1. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the proband of family 1. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing of the single exon and intron–exon boundaries of HPS6 was performed on all affected patients and segregation confirmed in available relatives.
Two siblings presented in infancy with nystagmus and reduced vision. They were initially diagnosed with isolated foveal hypoplasia with no aberrant chiasmal misrouting on VEPs. WES performed in the proband when 10 years of age identified a novel homozygous missense variant in HPS6 and further questioning elicited a history of nose bleeds and mild bruising. Segregation supported causality of this variant in the affected younger sibling. In the third unrelated patient, an initial diagnosis of ocular albinism was made at 3 months with HPS only diagnosed at 26 years. Biallelic, truncating mutations in HPS6 were identified by candidate Sanger sequencing and included a novel variant. Abnormal platelet function consistent with HPS was confirmed in all patients.
The diagnosis of HPS in all patients was delayed due to a mild systemic phenotype. Next-generation sequencing can aid diagnosis of syndromic conditions with important consequences for preventing morbidity.
To evaluate the clinical outcome of a full-diameter, untrephined, semicircular Descemet graft in a consecutive series of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (hemi-DMEK), potentially allowing the harvesting of two grafts from a single donor corneoscleral rim.
Interventional case series of 10 eyes of 10 patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were evaluated up to 6 months postoperatively, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded.
Hemi-DMEK was successful in 9 out of 10 eyes; one eye showed persistent graft detachment despite rebubbling and underwent a secondary DMEK. BCVA improved in all successful hemi-DMEK eyes: at 6 months 100% of eyes (n=7) reached ≥20/40 (≥0.5), 86% (n=6) ≥20/25 (≥0.8), 29% (n=2) ≥20/20 (≥1.0) and 14% (n=1) reached 20/17 (≥1.2). Two eyes were excluded from visual analysis due to low visual potential. Preoperative donor ECD declined from 2744 (±181) cells/mm2 to 940 (±380) cells/mm2 centrally at 6 months postoperatively (n=9), with (donor and/or host) endothelial cell redistribution over bare stromal areas adjacent to the graft. Average CCT decreased from 745 (±153) µm preoperatively to 520 (±37) µm at 6 months. Four eyes required rebubbling for visually significant graft detachment. No other complications occurred throughout the study period.
Hemi-DMEK may give visual outcomes similar to those in conventional DMEK. If ECD decrease and graft detachment rate would prove acceptable in larger series, hemi-DMEK could have the potential to double the availability of donor tissue for endothelial keratoplasty.
Strabismus in Duane retraction syndrome is frequently associated with significant globe retraction and overshoots. However, there is no method to objectively grade retraction and overshoot. Our purpose is to describe a novel objective grading method. This novel and simple grading method has excellent agreement. It will help standardise measurements and guide the clinician in taking the decision for surgery and predicting its outcome.
To assess the outcome of cataract surgery in patients with chronic sequelae of Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS).
Setting: Tertiary eye care centre in South India. Design: Retrospective, non-comparative, consecutive, interventional case series. Study period: March 2003 to May 2014. Of the 1662 consecutive patients with SJS, 32 patients (40 eyes) with chronic sequelae of SJS who underwent cataract surgery were included. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and ocular surface stabilisation. The visual acuity was expressed with reference to the logMAR.
The study included 12 men (37.5%) and 20 women (62.5%). 8 patients (25%) had bilateral cataract surgeries. The median preoperative BCVA was 1.61 (IQR, 0.80 to 2.78) (only perception of light in three eyes). The median BCVA in the immediate postoperative period was 0.60 (IQR, 0.30 to 1.48) (perception of light in an eye) which was significantly different from the preoperative BCVA (p<0.0001). The median BCVA achieved was 0.30 (IQR, 0.00 to 0.80), suggesting further improvement. Median time taken to achieve this postoperatively was 1.5 months (IQR, 8 days to 3 months). The median BCVA during the last follow-up was 0.48 (IQR, 0.18 to 1.00). The preferred type of cataract surgery was phacoemulsification. Ocular surface condition remained stable in 35 eyes (87.5%). Ocular surface breakdown in four eyes (10%) was managed appropriately.
Cataract surgery outcome can be visually rewarding in chronic sequelae of SJS provided ocular surface integrity is adequately maintained preoperatively and postoperatively.
Despite high-quality evidence being essential for planning and delivering eye health programmes, evidence on what works is relatively scarce. To address this need, we developed eye health Evidence Gap Maps (EGMs) with the first one focusing on cataract. These maps summarise, critically appraise and present evidence in a user-friendly format. This paper presents experiences of developing the cataract gap map and discusses the challenges and benefits of the process.
Following a comprehensive search of relevant databases, we sifted and extracted data from all relevant reviews on cataract. Critical appraisal was conducted by two reviewers independently using Supported the Use of Research Evidence checklist and a summary quality assessment was shared with the authors for comments.
A total of 52 reviews were included in the map. The majority of the reviews addressed quality of clinical care (20) and types of treatment (18). Overall, 30 reviews provided strong evidence in response to the research question, 14 reviews showed weak or no evidence and in 14 reviews the results were inconclusive. 14 reviews were regarded as high quality, 12 were medium quality and 26 were graded as low quality. To verify the validity of the Supporting the Use for Research Evidence (SURE) checklist, studies were also appraised using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool. Based on the statistics test, results showed excellent agreement between the two checklists (K=0.79).
EGMs support policy makers and programme managers to make informed decisions and enable researchers to prioritise future work based on the most evident gaps on knowledge.
Johnston et al (see
Rate and risk factors for retinal detachment after cataract surgery: younger age, longer axial length and posterior capsule rupture with vitreous loss seem to associate with a higher risk of retinal detachment after cataract surgery.
Frings et al (see
When surgery is performed up to 3 days after onset of central vision loss, eyes with macula-off retinal detachment obtain significantly better final visual acuity.
Xue et al (see
In a study of 21 patients with highly myopic eyes, after 1 year of follow-up, posterior scleral reinforcement using genipin-cross-linked sclera in the treatment of macular detachment and/or retinoschisis in highly myopic eyes seemed safe and effective if a macular hole was not present.
Chowers et al (see
The age of onset of Sporadic Adult-Onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy is higher than...
To investigate risk factors for retinal detachment (RD) after cataract surgery, particularly posterior capsular rupture (PCR) with or without vitreous loss.
Single centre electronic medical record database study of 18 065 consecutive first eye cataract operations performed between 2005 and 2014. Survival analysis was performed with Kaplan–Meier curves and a Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to calculate HRs with respect to RD.
The RD rate at 3 months and 7 years was 0.067% and 0.30%, respectively, with a median time to RD of 15 months (mean: 18 months, range: 0–84 months). Men had a higher RD risk (HR 2.00; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.88; p=0.03) in the univariate model. Patients <60 years and those >80 years had an HR of 5.12 (95% CI 2.60 to 10.07; p<0.001) and 0.16 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.69; p=0.01), respectively, compared with patients 60–80 years of age. Eyes longer than 25 mm had an HR of 3.98 (95% CI 1.93 to 8.20; p<0.001) compared with eyes 23–25 mm. PCR occurred in 400 (2.2%) eyes. The HR for RD was 12.83 (95% CI 5.62 to 29.30; p<0.001) for PCR with vitreous loss. There were no RD events in eyes with PCR without vitreous loss.
The risk for RD after cataract surgery is higher in younger patients and eyes with longer axial length or PCR with vitreous loss during surgery.
To evaluate the objective and subjective optical quality of all optic zone diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL).
Fifty patients (50 eyes) having phacoemulsification and IOL implantation surgery were enrolled. 25 patients were implanted with all optic zone diffractive multifocal IOL and 25 patients with monofocal IOL. Objective optical quality parameters under 4 mm pupil using Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS), subjective visual acuity (VA) at 85 cd/m2 luminance and questionnaire concerning halo and visual function were assessed.
The multifocal group gained similar objective optical outcomes, such as OQAS values at contrast 100%, 20%, 9%, modulation transfer function cut-off and Strehl ratio, as the monofocal group. Objective scatter index (OSI) was significantly better in the monofocal group. Distance corrected near VA, uncorrected near VA, distance corrected intermediate VA and uncorrected intermediate VA were significantly better in the multifocal group. The difference in uncorrected distance VA and best corrected distance VA between the monofocal and multifocal groups was not significant. Mild halos and glare were reported in both groups and a significant difference between the two groups was not observed; however, moderate glare and halos were reported only in the multifocal group (2/25). There was no significant difference between the two groups when visual function was compared.
All optic zone diffractive multifocal IOLs provided almost the same objective optical quality as monofocal IOLs did under 4 mm pupil besides good all distance visual performance, but with greater OSI, indicating that implantation provides good optical quality in daytime but with more intraocular scatter light.
To investigate the influence of lag time between the onset of central visual acuity loss and surgical intervention of macula-off retinal detachment.
This retrospective case series examined all consecutively treated eyes with primary macula-off retinal detachment at the University Hospital Hamburg (Germany) from February 2010 to February 2015. Records of 1727 patients operated by six surgeons were reviewed. Eighty-nine eyes (5.2%) from 89 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main outcome measure studied was final visual acuity as a function of symptom duration of macula-off detachment. Secondary outcome measures studied were influence of age and surgical technique. Symptom duration was defined as the time from the onset of loss of central vision to surgical intervention.
After 10 days no clinically relevant difference was seen in final visual acuity. Eyes with symptom duration of 3 days or less achieved best final visual acuity (p<0.001). Age and preoperative visual acuity had no influence while vitrectomised eyes had better outcome compared with those with scleral buckling.
Our study suggests that 1. After 10 days of central visual acuity loss, the final visual outcome is clinically comparable and independent of further delay of surgery up to 30 days. 2. Eyes treated up to 3 days after onset of loss of central vision have better final visual acuity than eyes with longer lag time. However, we did not find statistically significant differences within the first 3 days. 3. Surgery for macula-off retinal detachment may therefore most likely not be postponed without compromising the patient's visual prognosis.
Previously we could show increased numbers and densities of dendritic-like cells (DLCs) in the subbasal nerve plexus of the central cornea in patients with herpetic anterior uveitis (HAU). Now we aimed to explore these and other inflammatory cells seen in this layer in different subtypes of anterior uveitis using in vivo confocal microscopy.
Consecutive eyes of patients with different types of anterior uveitis, HAU, Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome (FUS), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-related anterior uveitis were examined in vivo with the combination of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II/III and Rostock Cornea Module. The contralateral eye was used as control. Inflammatory cells were defined on the basis of their morphology: type 1 (DLCs) and type 2 (cell bodies lacking dendrites). Frequencies were evaluated statistically in each group.
The difference between means of type 1 cells density of affected eyes in all four groups was significant (one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) p=0.039). The difference between means of type 1 cell densities of affected eyes in patients with HAU (96.8±44.2 cells/mm2, n=10) and that of patients with FUS (46.4±38.7 cells/mm2, n=17) was significant (Tukey's post hoc p=0.025), whereas the difference between patients with HAU and JIA (53.3±34.5 cells/mm2, n=7) and patients with HAU and HLA-B27 (63.1±59.2 cells/mm2, n=10) was not significant (Tukey's post hoc p=0.181 and 0.300). In contrast, the following means resulted from the evaluation of type 2 cells: the difference between means of affected eyes in all four groups was not significant (one-way ANOVA p=0.185). Density means difference of patients with HAU (44.9±22.6 cells/mm2, n=5) and that of FUS (20.0±11.0 cells/mm2, n=2) and that of patients with JIA (56.0±18.3 cells/mm2, n=2) and that of HLA-B27 (36.1±24.1 cells/mm2, n=5) was not significant (Tukey's post hoc p=0.302, 0.877 and 0.739). The contralateral eye of all patient groups showed also an inflammatory cell infiltrate of lesser extent.
The high density and morphology of DLCs in the central cornea of patients with HAU assessed by confocal microscopy supports the clinical diagnosis of HAU especially when compared with patients with FUS but not when compared with patients with JIA or HLA-B27.
This study suggests that the non-invasive confocal microscopy of the cornea is capable of supporting a clinical diagnosis in patients with uveitis.
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