Welcome to the Ophthalmology Journal News page! This page will showcase the latest news from the world of Ophthalmology, as published by The British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ).
For the British Ophthalmology Journal Archives, please visit http://bjo.bmj.com/ .
These news items are mainly specific study results that are relevant to the layman.
We have also added another news page with more ‘general’ Opthalmogy news here: Opthamologist News.
Furthermore, we have added a page with general news articles about Eye Health here: Eye Problems Articles , which is a good read for both patients and Ophthalmologists alike.
Ophthalmology Journal News:
Comparison of optical coherence tomography (OCT) segmentation performance regarding technical accuracy and clinical relevance.
29 eyes were imaged prospectively with Spectralis (Sp), Cirrus (Ci), 3D-OCT 2000 (3D) and RS-3000 (RS) OCTs. Raw data were evaluated in validated custom software. A 1 mm diameter subfield, centred on the fovea, was investigated to compare identical regions for each case. Segmentation errors were corrected on each B-scan enclosed in this subfield. Proportions of wrongly segmented A-scans were noted for inner and outer retinal boundaries. Centre point thickness (CPT) and central macular thickness (CMT) were compared before and after correction.
Segmentation errors occurred in 77% and affected on average 29% of A-scans, resulting in mean differences of 24/13 µm (CPT/CMT). The incidence of segmentation errors was 48% (Sp), 79% (Ci), 86% (3D) and 93% (RS), p<0.001. Mean proportions of A-scans with wrong outer retinal boundary were 30% (Sp), 9% (Ci), 23% (3D) and 10% (RS), p=0.006; proportions for the inner retinal boundary were 11% (Sp), 12% (Ci), 6% (3D) and 21% (RS), p=0.034. Mean deviations in CPT/CMT were 41/28 µm (Sp), 17/11 µm (Ci), 30/13 µm (3D) and 18/8 µm (RS), p=0.409/0.477.
By comparison of identical regions, substantial differences were detected between the tested OCT devices regarding technical accuracy and clinical impact. Spectralis showed lowest error incidence but highest error impact.
Drusen are focal deposits of extracellular material located between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane and represent the major phenotypic characteristic of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Due to evolving imaging techniques and recent histological studies, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) have received increasing attention and have been recently identified as an additional phenotypic entity in AMD. In contrast to conventional drusen, RPD proved to be located internal to the RPE. In the past few years, numerous studies collected new findings on RPD related to their pathogenesis, imaging properties and impact on retinal function. While most former natural history studies as well as interventional studies in early AMD did not include imaging RPD beyond colour fundus photography, this phenotype must be included in every future large-scale study on AMD. This review summarises the current knowledge on RPD.
To compare different imaging modalities and to investigate the ability of MultiColor to evaluate geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Twenty-two consecutive patients with GA underwent MultiColor, colour fundus photography, blue fundus autofluorescence (FAF) (excitation=488 nm; emission >500 nm), near-infrared FAF (NIR-FAF) (excitation=787 nm; emission >800 nm) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis HRA+OCT; Heidelberg Engineering) imaging. Two readers independently measured the size (area) and the width of GA (on horizontal SD-OCT scan cutting the fovea), and evaluated the foveal sparing in each examination.
A total of 32 eyes (22 patients, mean age 79.2±8 years) with GA were included. Intragrader and intergrader agreement considering the evaluation of the size and width of GA was high for all the examinations. MultiColor and FAF showed the greatest intergrader agreement for GA area measurement (intraclass correlation (ICC)=0.990, 95% CI 0.980 to 0.995; ICC=0.998, 95% CI 0.996 to 0.999, respectively). SD-OCT showed the highest intergrader agreement of foveal involvement (k=1), followed by MultiColor and NIR-FAF (k=0.68).
We demonstrated that several different imaging modalities currently available in clinical practice are reliable for evaluating GA due to AMD. MultiColor is an excellent tool for the measurement of GA area and width, and for the detection of foveal sparing.
To evaluate the visual and anatomical outcomes of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DXI; 700 μg, Ozurdex; Allergan, Irvine, California, USA) as adjunctive therapy for patients with refractory wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Retrospective review of the medical records of seven patients (seven eyes) who initially responded well to intravitreal ranibizumab but subsequently developed persistent intra/sub-retinal fluid (IRF/SRF) and underwent a single injection of DXI, between May 2012 and May 2013. Two weeks after DXI, the patients continued with their monthly ranibizumab injections. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were recorded at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after DXI injection. Complications were recorded too.
All patients had at least 24 months of ranibizumab treatment. Mean age was 81.5±5.8 years. At baseline, mean BCVA was 0.53±0.13 logMAR (20/70 Snellen) and mean CRT was 273.14±50.94 μm. BCVA did not change significantly after DXI over the follow-up period. However, all eyes had lost fewer than 0.3 logMAR units. Complete resolution of the persistent IRF/SRF was achieved in five eyes (71.4%) at 6 weeks, and remained stable at 3 months. Two weeks after DXI injection, the mean CRT diminished compared with baseline (248.28±31.8 µm; p=0.03) and the greatest reduction was observed at 3 months after DXI injection (241.5±36.6 µm; p=0.04). Progression of lens opacity was detected in one case (50% of phakic eyes). Retreatment with DXI was performed in two eyes.
DXI appears to be effective in vision stabilisation, decreasing IRF/SRF and improvement of CRT in eyes with refractory wet AMD.
To determine predictors of 2-year outcomes after three, monthly, intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections followed by as-needed injections for treatment-naive polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
This trial included 85 Japanese patients with symptomatic treatment-naive PCV who received one 0.5 mg IVR injection monthly for 3 months followed by as-needed retreatments. PCV with subfoveal leakage on fluorescein angiography with or without actual choroidal neovascularisation were included. Analyses evaluated independent baseline predictors of better and improved visual acuity (VA) and need for fewer reinjections 2 years after the first injection.
After the three monthly injections, 1.3±1.4 and 1.5±2.0 (mean±SD) as-needed injections were administered during years 1 and 2, respectively. The baseline logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, VA (0.60±0.49) improved significantly (p=0.001) (0.41±0.47) 2 years after the first injection. Younger patients’ eyes with a better baseline VA and no cluster of grape-like polypoidal lesions were significant independent predictors of better VA 2 years after treatment. No baseline factors predicted fewer ranibizumab reinjections during 2 years. At 2 years, resolution of polypoidal lesions 1 month after the three monthly injections did not affect VA and number of reinjections during 2 years.
Patient age, baseline VA and clusters of grape-like polypoidal lesions predicted VA outcomes 2 years after treatment with IVR for PCV.
To ascertain the causes severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) in schools for the blind in southeast Nigeria and to evaluate temporal trends.
All children who developed blindness at <15 years of age in all the three schools for the blind in southeast Nigeria were examined. All the data were recorded on a WHO/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) form entered into a Microsoft Access database and transferred to STATA V.12.1 for analysis. To estimate temporal trends in causes of blindness, older (>15 years) children were compared with younger (≤15 years) children.
124 children were identified with SVI/BL. The most common anatomical site of blindness was the lens (33.9%). Overall, avoidable blindness accounted for 73.4% of all blindness. Exploring trends in SVI/BL between children ≤15 years of age and those >15 years old, this study shows a reduction in avoidable blindness but an increase in cortical visual impairment in the younger age group.
The results from this study show a statistically significant decrease in avoidable blindness in children ≤15 years old. Corneal blindness appears to be decreasing but cortical visual impairment seems to be emerging in the younger age group. Appropriate strategies for the prevention of avoidable childhood blindness in Nigeria need to be developed and implemented.
Subretinal coapplication of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-antagonists is a new treatment option for age-related macular degeneration complicated by submacular haemorrhage. Here, we investigate the compatibility of rtPA and aflibercept or ranibizumab in vitro because intraoperatively, rtPA or rtPA-induced plasmin may cleave aflibercept or ranibizumab.
Aflibercept and ranibizumab, respectively, were incubated with rtPA or plasmin, separated in gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie or silver. The antiangiogenic activity of the VEGF-antagonists was quantified by VEGF-ELISA after incubation with the supernatant of primary porcine retinal pigment epithelium cell cultures.
In electrophoresis, ranibizumab displayed no additional fragments when it was coapplied with rtPA or plasmin. Its VEGF-inhibiting efficacy remained unchanged in coapplication with rtPA with or without blood, or plasmin. rtPA did not cleave or functionally compromise aflibercept. When aflibercept was coapplied with plasmin, electrophoresis displayed additional bands in Coomassie (30 kDa, 27 kDa, 19 kDa, 15 kDa) and silver staining (31 kDa, 26 kDa, 21 kDa, 19 kDa, 15 kDa). While at a clinical dosage (800 µg/mL) VEGF was inhibited by aflibercept when coapplied with plasmin, at borderline concentrations (400 ng/mL) VEGF-binding ability of aflibercept was abolished.
Ranibizumab is not cleaved or functionally compromised by rtPA or plasmin. Aflibercept is cleaved and its VEGF-binding ability is reduced when coapplied with plasmin. In clinical practice, rtPA and ranibizumab can be coapplied as a treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration with submacular haemorrhage while the antiangiogenic activity of aflibercept may be compromised when coapplied with rtPA in the presence of plasmin.
To estimate the floor of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurements and the corresponding retinal sensitivity loss in glaucoma.
Visual field (VF), Spectralis RNFL (83 patients and 37 healthy subjects) and RTVue RNFL data obtained separately (56 patients and 36 healthy subjects) were reviewed. Global and quadrant residual layer thicknesses and corresponding VF losses were estimated using two Bayesian change point models.
The respective residual thicknesses from change point model 1 (CPM1) on Spectralis and RTVue (respectively) were 49.9 and 70.6 µm globally, 57.1 and 83.7 µm superiorly, 55.2 and 79.0 µm inferiorly, 43.1 and 60.5 µm nasally, and 40.1 and 59.5 µm temporally. Corresponding VF losses ranged between –25.1 and –21.7 dB (Spectralis) and between –21.8 and –3.4 dB (RTVue). From CPM2, RNFL thinning reached horizontal asymptotes at VF losses between –18.0 and –10.7 dB (Spectralis) and between –12.1 and –2.5 dB (RTVue). There were no significant differences between postchange point residual layer thicknesses from CPM1 and CPM2 on Spectralis (37.0–50.8 µm vs 38.3–56.0 µm) and RTVue (60.6–80.5 µm vs 58.4–88.8 µm).
Global RNFL thinning reaches the floor at a smaller VF loss level with Spectralis than with RTVue. The nasal and temporal quadrants retain thinner residual layers than superior and inferior quadrant RNFL. Measuring RNFL below their minimums will not yield useful clinical information.
To study the incidence and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in England, 1990–2011.
English national Hospital Episode Statistics were analysed, for babies born in hospital and for inpatient admissions, to obtain annual rates of diagnosis of, and treatment for, babies with ROP. National data on low birthweight (LBW) babies, born <1500 g and therefore eligible for ROP screening, were used as denominators in calculating rates of ROP per 1000 babies at risk.
The recorded incidence of ROP increased tenfold, from 12.8 per 1000 LBW babies in 1990 to 125.5 per 1000 LBW babies in 2011. Tretment rates for ROP by cryotherapy or laser rose from 1.7 to 14.8 per 1000 LBW babies between 1990 and 2011. In 1990, 13.3% of babies with ROP were treated with cryotherapy, which fell to 0.1% in 2011. Rates for laser treatment rose from 1.8% of babies with ROP in 1999 to 11.7% in 2011.
Increased neonatal survival, improved awareness of ROP and dissemination of guidance on screening and treatment of ROP will all have contributed to the substantial rise in recorded incidence of ROP between 1990 and 2011. Retinal ablation is now almost always performed using laser treatment rather than cryotherapy.
To assess the efficacy and safety of latanoprostene bunod (LBN) compared with latanoprost 0.005%, and to determine the optimum drug concentration(s) of LBN in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in subjects with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
Randomised, investigator-masked, parallel-group, dose-ranging study. Subjects instilled one drop of study medication in the study eye once daily each evening for 28 days and completed five study visits. The primary efficacy endpoint was the reduction in mean diurnal IOP at Day 28.
Of the 413 subjects randomised (LBN 0.006%, n=82; LBN 0.012%, n=85; LBN 0.024%, n=83; LBN 0.040%, n=81; latanoprost, n=82), 396 subjects completed the study. Efficacy for LBN was dose-dependent reaching a plateau at 0.024%–0.040%. LBN 0.024% led to significantly greater reductions in diurnal IOP compared with latanoprost at the primary endpoint, Day 28 (p=0.005), as well as Days 7 (p=0.033) and 14 (p=0.015). The incidence of adverse events, mostly mild and transient, was numerically higher in the LBN treatment groups compared with the latanoprost group. Hyperaemia was similar across treatments.
LBN 0.024% dosed once daily was the lower of the two most effective concentrations evaluated, with significantly greater IOP lowering and comparable side effects relative to latanoprost 0.005%. LBN dosed once daily for 28 days was well tolerated.
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